ChestAi algorithm accurately diagnose and localize following lung pathologies. We are currently providing our patent platform to major hospitals and radiology testing laboratories across US and India.  

1. Atelectasis: Atelectasis is a condition when some of the alveoli don’t fill with air.

 

Causes: Mucus plug, Foreign body, Tumor, Injury, Pleural effusion, Pneumonia, Pneumothorax, Scarring.

Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, Rapid, shallow breathing, Wheezing, Cough.

Treatment: Incentive spirometry, Surgery, Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), Bronchodilators, Antibiotics, Mucolytic agents.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

2. Cardiomegaly: Cardiomegaly is usually a sign of another condition such as a heart valve problem or heart disease. It may also signal a prior heart attack. It can also occur from bodily stress caused by pregnancy or certain infections.

 

Causes: Viral infection of the heart, Abnormal heart valve, Pregnancy, with the heart enlarging around the time of delivery (your doctor may call this peripartum cardiomyopathy), Kidney disease that needs dialysis, Alcohol or cocaine abuse, HIV infection, Genetic and inherited conditions.

Symptoms: Shortness of breath (especially when active or when lying flat), Leg swelling, Weight gain, particularly in your midsection, Tired feeling, Palpitations or skipped heartbeats.

Treatment: Diuretics to lower the amount of sodium and water in your body, which can help lower the pressure in your arteries and heart, Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to lower your blood pressure and improve your heart's pumping capability, Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) to provide the benefits of ACE inhibitors for those who can't take ACE inhibitors, Beta blockers to lower blood pressure and improve heart function, Anticoagulants to reduce the risk of blood clots that could cause a heart attack or stroke or Anti-arrhythmics to keep your heart beating with a normal rhythm.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

3. Effusion: A pleural effusion is an unusual amount of fluid around the lung. 

 

Causes: Heart failure, Pulmonary embolism, Cirrhosis, Post open heart surgery, Pneumonia, Cancer, Pulmonary embolism, Kidney disease, Inflammatory disease, Tuberculosis, Autoimmune disease, Bleeding (due to chest trauma), Chylothorax (due to trauma), Rare chest and abdominal infections, Asbestos pleural effusion (due to exposure to asbestos), Meig’s syndrome (due to a benign ovarian tumor), Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

Symptoms: Chest pain, Dry, nonproductive cough, Dyspnea (shortness of breath, or difficult, labored breathing), Orthopnea (the inability to breathe easily unless the person is sitting up straight or standing erect)

Treatment: Diuretics, Pleural sclerosis, Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), Thoracotomy.

                                                                                                                                                                                      

 

4. Pulmonary Infiltrate: A pulmonary infiltrate is a substance denser than air, such as pus, blood, or protein, which lingers within the parenchyma of the lungs. Pulmonary infiltrates are associated with pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Causes, symptoms and treatment can be similar to pneumonia or the underlying condition.

                                                                                                                                                                                      

 

5. Mass: A pulmonary mass is any area of pulmonary opacification that measures more than 30 mm. 

 

Causes: The commonest cause of a pulmonary mass is lung cancer. Other causes do exists hyperdense pulmonary mass, cavitating pulmonary mass, Benign (noncancerous) lung tumors: Such as hamartomas, the most common type of benign lung tumor, Lung abscesses: Infections that have been "walled off" and contained by the body, AV malformations: Abnormal connection between arteries and veins that are usually present from birth, Lipoid pneumonia, Fungal infections: Such as coccidiomycosis and blastomycosis, Parasitic infections: Such as echinococcus (hydatid cysts), Pulmonary artery aneurysms: An outpouching in the arteries that travel from the heart to the lungs can appear as a mass on imaging tests, Amyloidosis.

Symptoms: Shortness of breath (dyspnea), initially while exercising and eventually while at rest, Fatigue, Dizziness or fainting spells (syncope), Chest pressure or pain, Swelling (edema) in your ankles, legs and eventually in your abdomen (ascites).

Treatment: The treatment of your lung mass will depend on the underlying cause. If it is a cancerous tumor of the lung or from the spread of cancer from another region of the body to the lung, treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Other less common causes of lung masses, such as infections, will be treated based on the diagnosis you and your doctor determine after testing.

                                                                                                                                                                                      

 

6. Nodule: A small single mass in the lungs that's usually benign. A solitary pulmonary nodule is usually less than three centimeters. It's often found incidentally when performing an imaging test.

 

Causes: Infections, Noninfectious causes of benign inflammatory lung nodules, Neoplasms, Lung cancer, etc.

Symptoms: Wheezing, coughing that lasts or coughing up blood, Shortness of breath, Fever, especially if pneumonia is present.

Treatment: Thoracotomy, Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

7. Pneumonia: Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. 

 

Causes: Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, including COVID-19, etc.

Symptoms: Chest pain when you breathe or cough, Confusion or changes in mental awareness (in adults age 65 and older), Cough, Fatigue, Fever, sweating and shaking chills, Lower than normal body temperature (in adults older than age 65 and people with weak immune systems, Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, Shortness of breath.

Treatment: Antibiotics, aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), acetaminophen (Tylenol), hospitalization.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

8. Pneumothorax: A pneumothorax is a collapsed lung. 

 

Causes: Chest injury, Lung disease, Ruptured air blisters, Mechanical ventilation. 

Symptoms: Shortness of breath, Chest pain.

Treatment: Treatment consists of supportive care and procedures. When a pneumothorax is large, a needle or tube is used to remove excess air.

                                                                                                                                                                                     

 

9. Consolidation: Lung consolidation occurs when the air that usually fills the small airways in your lungs is replaced with something else. Depending on the cause, the air may be replaced with: a fluid, such as pus, blood, or water. 

 

Causes: Pneumonia, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Aspiration, Lung cancer.

Symptoms: Expansion of the thorax on inspiration is reduced on the affected side, Vocal fremitus is increased on the affected side, Percussion is dull in the affected area, Breath sounds are bronchial, Possible medium, late, or pan-inspiratory crackles, Vocal resonance is increased. Here, the patient's voice (or whisper, as in whispered pectoriloquy) can be heard more clearly when there is consolidation, as opposed to the healthy lung where speech sounds muffled, A pleural rub.

Treatment: Treatment is based on its cause.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

10. Edema: Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid in the lungs. This fluid collects in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.

 

Causes: Pulmonary edema is usually caused by a heart condition. Other causes include pneumonia, exposure to certain toxins and drugs, and being at high elevations.

Symptoms: Cough, often with a pink frothy sputum, excessive sweating, anxiety and restlessness, feelings of suffocation, pale skin, wheezing, rapid or irregular heart rhythm (palpitations), chest pain, etc.

Treatment: To raise the patient’s blood oxygen levels, oxygen is given either through a face mask or prongs – tiny plastic tubes in the nose. A breathing tube may be placed into the trachea if a ventilator, or breathing machine, is necessary. If tests show that the pulmonary edema is because of a problem in the circulatory system, the patient will be treated with intravenous medications to help remove fluid volume and control blood pressure.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

11. Emphysema: Emphysema is a disease of the lungs that usually develops after many years of smoking. Along with asthma and chronic bronchitis, emphysema belongs to a group of lung diseases known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

 

Causes: Emphysema is a disease of the lungs that usually develops after many years of smoking. Both chronic bronchitis and emphysema belong to a group of lung diseases known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Once it develops, emphysema can’t be reversed. This is why not smoking or stopping smoking is very important.

Symptoms: Shortness of breath, especially during light exercise or climbing steps, Ongoing feeling of not being able to get enough air, Long-term cough or “smoker’s cough”, Wheezing, Long-term mucus production, Ongoing fatigue.

Treatment: Quitting smoking, Bronchodilator medications, Anti-inflammatory medication, Oxygen therapy, Lung volume reduction surgery.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

12. Fibrosis: Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease that occurs when lung tissue becomes damaged and scarred. This thickened, stiff tissue makes it more difficult for your lungs to work properly. 

 

Causes: Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue diseases, and interstitial lung disease. Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. In most cases, the cause cannot be found.

Symptoms: Shortness of breath (dyspnea) A dry cough. Fatigue. Unexplained weight loss. Aching muscles and joints. Widening and rounding of the tips of the fingers or toes (clubbing).

Treatment: Pirfenidone (Esbriet) and nintedanib (Ofev), Oxygen therapy, Pulmonary rehabilitation, Lung transplant.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

13. Pleural thickening: Pleural thickening develops when scar tissue thickens the delicate membrane lining the lungs (the pleura).

 

Causes: Pleural thickening may be a symptom of pleural mesothelioma or lung cancer. It is an indicator of asbestos exposure.

Symptoms: Breathlessness, Difficulty drawing a deep breath, Shortness of breath, even with mild exertion, Chest pain when drawing a deep breath, Pain with coughing, Dull, chronic chest pain.

Treatment: In most cases, no treatment is needed since the pleural thickening does not usually cause very severe symptoms. Stopping smoking, keeping active and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) are usually the most helpful options. If your breathlessness is severe, surgery can very occasionally be considered.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

14. Lung hernia: Lung hernia (Sibson hernia) is a protrusion of lung outside of thoracic wall. 

 

Causes: Illness or surgery in which the chest wall is weakened or altered. A coughing “jag” or even a single harsh cough. Chest wall muscle strain resulting from lifting. Congenital deformity.

Symptoms: Sharp pain when inhaling, coughing, or sneezing, Difficulty breathing deeply or a shortness of breath, General soreness in a particular area of the chest, Swelling in a particular area of the chest, Fever.

Treatment: Asymptomatic lung hernias may be managed by close observation. In symptomatic cases, immediate reduction and closure of the defect is indicated to prevent incarceration and strangulation. Although lung hernias are rare and usually benign in nature, it is important for physicians to be aware that these entities do exist so that they are not alarmed when they are encountered. Knowledge of the benign nature of lung hernias will prevent the use of unnecessary invasive procedures and surgery.

                                                                                                                                                                                       

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